Need Assessment for Training of Undergraduate Students to Promote Tolerance Through Heritage Education


  • Fahad Maqbool PhD Scholar, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Naeem Mohsin Associate Professor Department of Education GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Kishwer Naheed Rana Chairperson, BISE, DG Khan, Pakistan



Tolerance, Undergraduate Students, Caste, Gender, Religion


The study was conducted to analyze the need for training of undergraduate students to promote tolerance through heritage education. The main objective of the study was to measure the responses of students regarding the status of tolerance. 400 undergraduate students were selected through simple random sampling technique. The researcher used a questionnaire to measure the tolerance status of students. The quantitative facts towards the caste are highly responsible for intolerant behavior while gender was on second that has created intolerant among students. Expressions regarding religious sects, e.g. social practices, differences among various creeds, and acceptance of different sects have a very high indication. Religious extremism has highly existed among students. Ethnicity e.g. affectedness show that is below the average and reaction against any other ethnic group above the average the existence of intolerance exists at a moderate level. The intolerance towards different faiths and sects was observed.


Ali, T. S., Krantz, G., Gul, R., Asad, N., Johansson, E., & Mogren, I. (2011). Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study. Global Health Action, 4.

BBC News. (2019). Asia Bibi: Pakistan’s notorious case. Retrieved June 23, 2019, from BBC News website:

Cordesmen, A. H., & Vira, V. (2011). Pakistan: Violence vs. Stability | Center for Strategic and International Studies (m). Center for strategic and Internation Studies.

Council of Europe. (2019). Discrimination and Intolerance. Retrieved June 25 , 2019, from Council of Europe website:

Down, N. (2017). Mardan university student lynched by mob over alleged blasphemy: police. Retrieved December 01, 2017, from DAWN.COM website:

Down, N. (2018). Mashal Khan lynching: Shooter Imran Ali sentenced to death, 5 given life imprisonment. DAWN.COM.

Durrani, N., & Halai, A. (2018). Dynamics of gender justice, conflict and social cohesion: Analysing educational reforms in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 61, 27–39.

Faruqi, M. (2011). A report on the status of religious minorities in Pakistan Islamabad.

Higher Education Commission. (2019). Universities Statistics. Retrieved november 02, 2019, from HEC Website

Human Right First. (2012). Blasphemy Laws Exposed: The Consequences of Criminalizing “Defamation of Religions.”

Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values. American Sociological Association, 65, 19–51.

Khalid, S., & Mahmood, N. (2013). A Measure of Students’ and Teachers’ Level of Tolerance Towards Religious and Social Factors. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11(2), 77.

Khan, M. (2012). Times of Ahmad: Ahmadis who stood Tall - III - Sahiwal. Times of Ahmad.

Kibaro?lu, M. (2012). Editor’s note. Defence against Terrorism Review.

Majeed, G. (2010). Ethnicity and ethnic conflict in Pakistan. Journal of Political Studies, 17(2), 51.

Musarrat, R., & Khan, S. (2014). Terrorism and Politico-Religious Extremism in Pakistan Post 9/11. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 4(1), 167–187.

Nasr, S. V. R. (1999). «Sectarianism and Shia Politics in Pakistan, 1979-Present». CEMOTI, Cahiers d’Études Sur La Méditerranée Orientale et Le Monde Turco-Iranien, 28(1), 311–323.

Nussbaum, M. (2004). Religious Intolerance. Foreign Policy.

Says, R. A.-R. (2016, April 24). Peace and Tolerance through Education - A New Role for Universities. Global Campaign for Peace Education.

Stepan, A., Shah, T. S., & Toft, M. D. (2012). Rethinking Religion and World Affairs. In Rethinking Religion and World Affairs - Oxford Scholarship (pp. 113–114). Oxford Scholarship Online:

Tamim, T., Musa, M., Tariq, H., & Rathore, S. (2013). Caste, Social Exclusion and Education in Rural Punjab: World Bank and CREB joint Research Initiative/Caste, Social Exclusion, and Opportunities for Education in Rural Punjab.

Toor, S. (2011). The State of Islam: Culture And Cold War Politics In Pakistan. Pluto Press.

UNESCO. (2019). Promoting Tolerance | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Yumusak, I. G., Bilen, M., & Ates, H. (2013). The Impacts of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Growth in Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 1093–1103.

Yusuf, H. (2012). Sectarian violence: Pakistan’s greatest security threat? Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre.




How to Cite

Maqbool, F. ., Mohsin, M. N. ., & Rana, K. N. . (2020). Need Assessment for Training of Undergraduate Students to Promote Tolerance Through Heritage Education. Review of Applied Management & Social Science, 3(2), 159-168.