Impact of Poverty and Population Increase on Environmental Degradation: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India


  • Sher Ali Assistant Prof. Department of Economics, Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Bibi Aisha Sadiqa Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Hazara University Manshra, Pakistan
  • Sajjad Ali Lecturer, Higher Education department, and PhD scholar, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Shabana Parveen Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan



Population size, Environmental Pollution, Co-integration, Pakistan and India


This study is devoted to elucidating the impact of poverty and population increase on air pollution (CO2-emission) in the two most populous countries of South Asia i.e. Pakistan and India. Annual time series data for the period of 1990-2018 are used to examine the said impact. To estimate the desired impact Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) technique is used. It is observed that CO2 emission is significantly determined by population increase and poverty in case of India. In the case of Pakistan population increase significantly affect CO2 emission in both the short run and long run, while poverty don not contributed significantly in the long run. Industrial production if found positive and statistically significant in both the runs. Stability of the model and other diagnostic tests are also employed not serious econometric problems are repowered. It is suggested on the bases of results that serious steps should be taken to reduce environmental pollution by reducing population increase and poverty. Industrial production also contributed to air pollution therefore industrial policies are also needed to be employed to reduce Air pollution.


Ahmad, M. H., Azhar, U., Wasti, S. A., Inam, Z., & Ghani, N., (2005), “Interaction between Population and Environmental Degradation”, The Pakistan Development Review, 44 (4), 1135-1150.

Ansuategi, A., Escapa, M., 2002. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. Ecological Economic 40, 23.37.

Birdsall, N., (1992). “Another look at population and global warming”, (Vol. 1020). World Bank Publications.

De Bruyn, S. M., (1997). Explaining the environmental Kuznets curve: structural change and international agreements in reducing sulphur emissions. Environment and development economics, 2(4), 485-503.

De Bruyn, S. M., vanden Bergh, J. C. J. M., Opschoor, J. B., (1998). Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of Environmental Kuznets Curves. Ecological Economics 25,161–175.

Dinda, S., (2004). Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: a survey. Ecological economics, 49(4), 431-455.

Dinda, S., Coondoo, D., Pal, M., 2000. Air quality and economic growth: anempirical study. Ecological Economics 34,409–423

Ehrlich, P., J. Holdren., (1971). “Impact of population growth”, Science 171, 1212-1217

Gana A. J., &Toba. A. P., (2015). Environmental Pollution and Sustainability: Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology (ISSN: 2315-5698) 4(1), 1-9.

Hettige, H., Mani, M.,Wheeler, D., 2000.Industrial pollution in economic development: the Environmental Kuznets Curve revisited. Journal of Development Economics 62,445–476

Kassa, G., Teferi, B., & Delelegn, N. (2018). The poverty-environment nexus in developing countries: Evidence from Ethiopia: A systematic review. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 1-13.

Malthus, T. R., & Flew, A., (1797). An Essay on the Principle of Population: And, A Summary View of the Principle of Population. Edited with an Introd. by Antony Flew. Penguin Books.

Mir, G. U. R., & Storm, S., (2016). “Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth”, Production-based versus Consumption-based Evidence on Decoupling, Ecological Economics, 32(6), 48-60.

Nadiri, M. I., (1993). Innovations and technological spillovers (No. w4423). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Neumayer, E., (2003). Are left-wing party strength and corporatism good for the environment? Evidence from panel analysis of air pollution in OECD countries. Ecological economics, 45(2), 203-220.

Panayotou, T., 2003. Economic Growth and the Environment 2003. Economic Survey of Europe: UNECE, vol. no. 2; ([chapter 2]).

Shafic, N., Bandyopadhyay, S., 1992. Economic Growth and Environmental Quality. Time series and Cross Country Evidence. Policy Research Working Paper no. 904, World Development Report 1992, The World Bank.

Shi, A., (2001, August). Population growth and global carbon dioxide emissions. In IUSSP Conference in Brazil/session-s09.

Tajul Ariffin Masron & Yogeeswari Subramaniam (2019) Does Poverty Cause Environmental Degradation? Evidence from Developing Countries, Journal of Poverty, 23:1, 44-64, DOI: 10.1080/10875549.2018.1500969

Watson, R. T., Zinyowera, M. C., & Moss, R. H., (1996). Climate change 1995. Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses.




How to Cite

Ali, S. ., Sadiqa, B. A. ., Ali, S. ., & Parveen, S. . (2020). Impact of Poverty and Population Increase on Environmental Degradation: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India. Review of Applied Management and Social Sciences, 3(2), 169-176.