Towards Sustainable Base of Pyramid Market: Role of ICTs in Shared Innovation


  • Muhammad Ilyas PhD Scholar, School of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan
  • Sulaman Hafeez Siddiqui Associate Professor, School of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan
  • Rabia Rasheed Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University Karachi Pakistan



Base of the Pyramid (BoP) Market, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), Shared Innovation


The purpose of this paper is to make a systematic review of the literature on role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in sustainability of the Base of the Pyramid (BOP) markets by studying the impact of ICT on innovation development at BOP. BOP markets are those segments of the global markets that have an income of about two to four dollars or less and are untapped fortunes for the business (Prahalad, 2002). BOP is fraught with dearth of infrastructure and resources which makes it hard for business firms to work out viable and sustainable strategies as the separations between the producers and end users are much wider in these markets compared with developed markets. Use of ICT helps reduce these separations by developing shared innovations with the people at BOP. Systematic literature review approach has been adopted to analyze the peer-reviewed journals for the period 2000 to 2019 using Google Scholar and Science Direct. BOP, ICT and Shared Innovations were the key words used in this search. Our findings suggest that ICT has significant role in development of shared innovations at the BOP markets as it bridges the physical market separation with its internet and web-based networks. This research has implications for busines managers, as it will guide them in making viable and sustainable strategies to run their businesses in these huge un-tapped markets.


Abraham, R. (2012). Doing business at the base of the pyramid: The reality of emerging markets. Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions(Special Issue 4).

Acosta, P., Kim, N., Melzer, I., Mendoza, R. U., & Thelen, N. (2011). Business and human development in the base of the pyramid: Exploring challenges and opportunities with market heat maps. Journal of World Business, 46(1), 50-60.

Adeola, O., & Anibaba, Y. (2018). Bottom of the Pyramid Marketing: Examples from Selected Nigerian Companies Bottom of the Pyramid Marketing: Making, Shaping and Developing BoP Markets: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Ahmed, A., Hossein, K. M., Rahman, M. A., Osugi, T., Fukuda, A., & Yasuura, H. (2015). Expansion of e-Commerce Coverage to Unreached Community by using Micro-Finance Infrastructure. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 6, 32-37.

Alderete, M. V. (2017). Examining the ICT access effect on socioeconomic development: the moderating role of ICT use and skills. Information Technology for Development, 23(1), 42-58.

Alur, S., & Schoormans, J. P. (2013). Retailers and new product acceptance in India's base of pyramid (BoP) markets. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management.

Anderson, J., & Billou, N. (2007). Serving the world's poor: innovation at the base of the economic pyramid. Journal of Business Strategy.

Anwar, M., Zaman Khan, S., & Ali Shah, S. Z. (2020). A study of the relationship between innovation and performance among NPOs in Pakistan. Journal of Social Service Research, 46(1), 26-40.

Arnold, D. G., & Valentin, A. (2013). Corporate social responsibility at the base of the pyramid. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1904-1914.

Ausrød, V. L., Sinha, V., & Widding, Ø. (2017). Business model design at the base of the pyramid. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 982-996.

Baishya, K., & Samalia, H. V. (2019). Extending unified theory of acceptance and use of technology with perceived monetary value for smartphone adoption at the bottom of the pyramid. International Journal of Information Management, 102036.

Baishya, K., & Samalia, H. V. (2020). Extending unified theory of acceptance and use of technology with perceived monetary value for smartphone adoption at the bottom of the pyramid. International Journal of Information Management, 51, 102036.

Belvedere, V., Grando, A., & Bielli, P. (2013). A quantitative investigation of the role of information and communication technologies in the implementation of a product-service system. International Journal of Production Research, 51(2), 410-426.

Beninger, S., & Robson, K. (2015). Marketing at the base of the pyramid: Perspectives for practitioners and academics. Business Horizons, 58(5), 509-516.

Berger, E., & Nakata, C. (2013). Implementing technologies for financial service innovations in base of the pyramid markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(6), 1199-1211.

Borchardt, M., Ndubisi, N. O., Jabbour, C. J. C., Grebinevych, O., & Pereira, G. M. (2020). The evolution of base of the pyramid approaches and the role of multinational and domestic business ventures: value-commitment and profit-making perspectives. Industrial Marketing Management, 89, 171-180.

Brix-Asala, C., Hahn, R., & Seuring, S. (2016). Reverse logistics and informal valorisation at the Base of the Pyramid: A case study on sustainability synergies and trade-offs. European Management Journal, 34(4), 414-423.

Chen, I. J., & Popovich, K. (2003). Understanding customer relationship management (CRM). Business process management journal.

Chen, J. L., & Lee, C.-L. (2017). Developing sustainable innovative products for the bottom of the pyramid by biomimetic design concepts. Procedia CIRP, 61, 629-634.

Chipidza, W., & Leidner, D. (2019). A review of the ICT-enabled development literature: Towards a power parity theory of ICT4D. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 28(2), 145-174.

De Beule, F., Klein, M., & Verwaal, E. (2020). Institutional quality and inclusive strategies at the base of the pyramid. Journal of World Business, 55(5), 101066.

Dembek, K., Sivasubramaniam, N., & Chmielewski, D. A. (2019). A systematic review of the bottom/base of the pyramid literature: Cumulative evidence and future directions. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-18.

Elkington, J. (1999). Triple bottom-line reporting: Looking for balance. AUSTRALIAN CPA, 69, 18-21.

Esko, S., Zeromskis, M., & Hsuan, J. (2013). Value chain and innovation at the base of the pyramid. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research.

Fernandes, J., Mason, K., & Chakrabarti, R. (2019). Managing to make market agencements: The temporally bound elements of stigma in favelas. Journal of Business Research, 95, 128-142.

Gold, S., Hahn, R., & Seuring, S. (2013). Sustainable supply chain management in “Base of the Pyramid” food projects—A path to triple bottom line approaches for multinationals? International Business Review, 22(5), 784-799.

González?Benito, Ó., González?Benito, J., & Muñoz?Gallego, P. A. (2014). On the consequences of market orientation across varied environmental dynamism and competitive intensity levels. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(1), 1-21.

Gotteland, D., Haon, C., & Gauthier, C. (2007). Market orientation: synthesis and new theoretical directions. Recherche et Applications en Marketing (English Edition), 22(1), 45-59.

Goyal, S., Sergi, B. S., & Kapoor, A. (2017). Emerging role of for-profit social enterprises at the base of the pyramid: the case of Selco. Journal of Management Development.

Greene, D. (2016). Discovering the divide: technology and poverty in the new economy. International Journal of Communication, 10, 20.

Heuër, A. (2017). Women-to-women entrepreneurial energy networks: A pathway to green energy uptake at the base of pyramid. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 22, 116-123.

Ilyas, M., Rasheed, R., & Faiz, R. (2020). Understanding Gendered Perspective to Corruption: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 6(2), 463-472.

Irani, Z., Arvanitis, S., Loukis, E., & Diamantopoulou, V. (2013). The effect of soft ICT capital on innovation performance of Greek firms. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.

Jagtap, S., Larsson, A., Hiort, V., Olander, E., Warell, A., & Khadilkar, P. (2014). How design process for the Base of the Pyramid differs from that for the Top of the Pyramid. Design Studies, 35(5), 527-558.

Joncourt, S., Gebauer, H., Reynoso, J., Cabrera, K., Valdes, A., & Greve, K. EXTENDING THE BASE-OF-THE-PYRAMID (BOP) CONCEPT.

Kapur, M., Dawar, S., & Ahuja, V. R. (2014). Unlocking the wealth in rural markets. Harvard business review, 92(6), 113-117.

Kolk, A., Rivera-Santos, M., & Rufín, C. (2014). Reviewing a decade of research on the “base/bottom of the pyramid”(BOP) concept. Business & Society, 53(3), 338-377.

Ku, E. C., Wu, W.-C., & Chen, Y. J. (2016). The relationships among supply chain partnerships, customer orientation, and operational performance: the effect of flexibility. Information systems and e-business management, 14(2), 415-441.

Lehikoinen, L. E., Lundh, A., Meert, L., Waeingnie, K., Bentsen, N., & Norbye, I. B. (2018). Innovation and Creativity at the Bottom of the Pyramid. International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), 11(1), 13-25.

Letaifa, S. B., & Reynoso, J. (2015). Toward a service ecosystem perspective at the base of the pyramid. Journal of Service Management.

Prahalad, C. K. (2002). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Strategy+ business, 26.

Reynoso, J., & Cabrera, K. (2019). Managing informal service organizations at the base of the pyramid (BoP). Journal of Services Marketing.

Sheombar, A. (2010). Discovery of key factors that may influence the success of multinational ICT companies in Base of the Pyramid markets.

Siddiqui, S. H., & Othman, I. B. L. (2016). Influence of Supply Chain Linkages with BoP Enterprises on Market Knowledge Competence and Propensity to Internationalization of MNEs: A Measurement Model. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 2(2), 189-198.

Srivastava, A., Mukherjee, S., & Jebarajakirthy, C. (2020). Aspirational consumption at the bottom of pyramid: A review of literature and future research directions. Journal of Business Research, 110, 246-259.

Tarafdar, M., & Scott, N. (2012). Information Separation in Service Supply Chains at the Bottom of the Pyramid: An Illustration through Telemedicine.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management science, 46(2), 186-204.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS quarterly, 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology: A synthesis and the road ahead. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(5), 328-376.

Venugopal, S., & Viswanathan, M. (2019). Implementation of Social Innovations in Subsistence Marketplaces: A Facilitated Institutional Change Process Model. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 36(6), 800-823.

Witell, L., Gebauer, H., Jaakkola, E., Hammedi, W., Patricio, L., & Perks, H. (2017). A bricolage perspective on service innovation. Journal of Business Research, 79, 290-298.

Yang, M. (2018). International entrepreneurial marketing strategies of MNCs: Bricolage as practiced by marketing managers. International Business Review, 27(5), 1045-1056.

Zhao, G., Cavusgil, E., & Zhao, Y. (2016). A protection motivation explanation of base-of-pyramid consumers' environmental sustainability. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45, 116-126.

Zhu, F., Wei, Z., Bao, Y., & Zou, S. (2019). Base-of-the-Pyramid (BOP) orientation and firm performance: A strategy tripod view and evidence from China. International Business Review, 28(6), 101594.




How to Cite

Ilyas, M. ., Siddiqui, S. H. . ., & Rasheed, R. . (2020). Towards Sustainable Base of Pyramid Market: Role of ICTs in Shared Innovation . Review of Applied Management and Social Sciences, 3(3), 435-443.