Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic among Pakistani University Students: The Protective Role of Spiritual Intelligence


  • Ali Sher PhD Scholar, Department of Psychology, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, Pakistan
  • Sajjad Hussain Lecturer in Department of Psychology, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, Pakistan
  • Inshal Clinical Psychologist at Hope Way Center Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Adeeb PhD Scholar, School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, Universiti Utara, Malaysia



Psychological Distress, Life Satisfaction, Spiritual Intelligence, COVID-19 Pandemic, University Students


The global mental health and psychological well-being of the general population were affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 and the subsequent worldwide lockdown. Numerous studies have sought to examine the factors, both protective and risk-related, associated with psychological distress and life satisfaction during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological distress and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic among Pakistani university students: the protective role of spiritual intelligence. The sample of 379 university students was collected from five public and private universities in Punjab Pakistan using convenient sampling.  Three questionnaires were used to collect the data; Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The SPSS (Version 23) was used to calculate the results. The results of Bivariate Correlation Analysis showed a significant positive relationship between spiritual intelligence and life satisfaction. While psychological distress was found a significant negative association with spiritual intelligence and life satisfaction. The results of Linear Regression Analysis confirmed that spiritual intelligence was a significant negative predictor of psychological distress and a significant positive predictor of life satisfaction among Pakistani university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research highlights the protective role of spiritual intelligence on psychological distress and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic; adding to the body of knowledge regarding factors that enhance positive mental health during emergencies and offering valuable insights for the development and implementation of effective public health policies and programs.


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How to Cite

Sher, A. ., Hussain, S. ., Inshal, & Adeeb , M. . (2023). Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic among Pakistani University Students: The Protective Role of Spiritual Intelligence. Review of Applied Management and Social Sciences, 6(2), 501-513.