Socio-Economic Causes of Smuggling in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis


  • Munawar Hayat M.Phil Scholar of Economics, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Waleed M.Phil Research Scholar, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan



Smuggling, Age, Rural Area, Education, Assets


This research aims to investigate the economic drivers of smuggling in Pakistan. For this objective, data from 300 respondents were gathered from places where smuggling occurs in Pakistan. The binary logistic approach is utilized to evaluate the socioeconomic determinants of smuggling. Results infer that the age of the respondent, people living in rural areas, the employed status of the household, education level, the value of assets, earnings, and livestock ownership are the factor that reduces the participation of the people in smuggling activities. Conversely, married households, household size, and monthly expenditure are increasing smuggling activities in the study area.


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How to Cite

Hayat, M. ., & Waleed, M. . (2024). Socio-Economic Causes of Smuggling in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis. Review of Applied Management and Social Sciences, 7(1), 19-30.